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Acta Biomedica Scientifica

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Тенденции управления профессиональным выгоранием медицинских сестёр в зарубежных исследованиях (обзор литературы)

https://doi.org/10.29413/ABS.2021-6.5.14

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Аннотация

В данной работе даётся общий обзор современного понимания и распространённости профессионального выгорания среди медицинских работников, резюмируются возникающие тенденции в управлении организации труда медицинских сестёр, препятствующие выгоранию, и проводится анализ практик, направленных на профилактику выгорания.

Выгорание отрицательно сказывается как на психическом, так и на соматическом здоровье, а также увеличивает экономические потери и текучесть квалифицированных кадров.

Профессиональное выгорание зависит от таких факторов как удовлетворённость работой, профессиональный ранг, уровень больницы, пол, профессиональные ценности, отрицательные эмоции и основные компетенции. Синдром выгорания тесно связан с синдромом усталости из-за сострадания и входит в более широкую концепцию профессионального качества жизни. Под состраданием понимается признание, понимание, эмоциональный резонанс, эмпатическая забота и терпимость к страданиям других, а также мотивация и действия в отношениях, чтобы помочь другим.

Проведённый анализ зарубежной литературы показал актуальность данной проблемы, в первую очередь для медицинских сестёр. Особенности работы медсестёр приводят к тому, что уровень выгорания у них выше, чем среди других медицинских работников. Предложены различные подходы к управлению профессиональным выгоранием. Мероприятия по уменьшению симптомов выгорания могут быть сосредоточены на организации, отдельном человеке или комбинированном воздействии.

Когда люди имеют систему позитивных убеждений, вовлечённость в работу и доступ ко многим личным ресурсам, они с меньшей вероятностью испытают стресс и выгорание.

Профессиональное выгорание медицинских сестёр обострилось в период COVID-19 и выявило новые актуальные проблемы здравоохранения. Пандемия COVID-19 показала нехватку медсестёр и стала серьёзной проблемой во многих странах. Для медицинского персонала важно отношение общества, значение и потребность в специализированной и профессиональной помощи, особенно в ситуациях больших трудностей и страданий. Общественная искренняя благодарность за работу медицинских сотрудников поможет укрепить сострадание к профессионалам, которые рискуют своей жизнью, чтобы помочь людям. 

Об авторах

А. Д. Гольменко
ФГБОУ ВО «Иркутский государственный университет»
Россия

доктор медицинских наук, профессор кафедры психодиагностики и практической психологии, 

664003, г. Иркутск, ул. Карла Маркса, 1



В. А. Хаптанова
ФГБОУ ВО «Иркутский государственный медицинский университет» Минздрава России
Россия

кандидат медицинских наук, доцент кафедры поликлинической терапии и общей врачебной практики, 

664003, г. Иркутск, ул. Красного Восстания, 1



В. П. Песков
ФГБОУ ВО «Московский государственный педагогический университет»
Россия

кандидат психологических наук, доцент Института педагогики и психологии образования, 

123022, г. Москва, Столярный пер., 16



А. Ю. Хаптанов
ФГБОУ ВО «Иркутский государственный медицинский университет» Минздрава России
Россия

ординатор кафедры терапевтической стоматологии, 

664003, г. Иркутск, ул. Красного Восстания, 1



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Для цитирования:


Гольменко А.Д., Хаптанова В.А., Песков В.П., Хаптанов А.Ю. Тенденции управления профессиональным выгоранием медицинских сестёр в зарубежных исследованиях (обзор литературы). Acta Biomedica Scientifica. 2021;6(5):145-156. https://doi.org/10.29413/ABS.2021-6.5.14

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Golmenko A.D., Khaptanova V.A., Peskov V.P., Khaptanov A.Yu. Trends in nursing burnout management in foreign studies (literature review). Acta Biomedica Scientifica. 2021;6(5):145-156. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.29413/ABS.2021-6.5.14

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