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Acta Biomedica Scientifica

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Идиопатический сколиоз: общая характеристика и анализ этиологических теорий (обзор литературы)

https://doi.org/10.29413/ABS.2021-6.3.20

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Аннотация

Идиопатический сколиоз – тяжелая патология опорно-двигательного аппарата, поражающая детей и подростков во всем мире. Заболевание встречается примерно у 0,2-0,6% от общего населения и составляет самую большую подгруппу искривлений позвоночника у человека (70-90% случаев всех известных сколиозов). При идиопатическом сколиозе формируется трехмерная деформация позвоночного столба, приводящая к образованию реберного горба, искривлению ребер и грудной клетки, асимметрии таза и нарушению развития внутренних органов. Главной особенностью заболевания является спонтанное развитие деформации во время роста ребенка и тенденция к прогрессированию. Сколиоз – не только ортопедическое заболевание, но и значительная косметическая, а, следовательно, психологическая и социальная проблема. Стандарт лечения сколиотической болезни длительное время остается неизменным: наблюдение, корсетолечение и хирургическая коррекция. Прогноз развития патологии варьирует в зависимости от степени деформации. Корсетотерапия, госпитализация, хирургическое вмешательство и лечение хронических болей в спине оказывают негативное влияние на психоэмоциональное состояние детей и подростков. Несмотря на значительные успехи в способах диагностики деформации, совершенствовании методов оперативного лечения и в изучении патогенеза, этиологический фактор патологии до сих пор остается неизвестным. Поиск причин развития идиопатического сколиоза охватывает практически все аспекты его возможного происхождения: генетический, экологический, гормональный, метаболический, биохимический, неврологический и другие. В последние десятилетия были сформулированы соответствующие теории развития сколиоза, но ни одна из теорий не раскрывает сущности патологического процесса и не имеет четкого обоснования. Наибольшее количество сторонников имеет генетическая теория: генетические факторы играют ключевую роль в возникновении и развитии идиопатического сколиоза. Понимание факторов, лежащих в основе заболевания, позволит осуществлять профилактику, раннюю диагностику и выявление групп риска рассматриваемой категории пациентов.

Об авторах

Е. Л. Строкова
ФГБУ «Новосибирский научноисследовательский институт травматологии и ортопедии им. Я.Л. Цивьяна» Минздрава России
Россия

 кандидат биологических наук, научный сотрудник научно-исследовательского отдела организации научных исследований 

Scopus Author ID: 55910202100, Web of Science ResearcherID: A-7663–2019

630091, г. Новосибирск, ул. Фрунзе, 17, Россия 



Н. Ю. Пахомова
ФГБУ «Новосибирский научноисследовательский институт травматологии и ортопедии им. Я.Л. Цивьяна» Минздрава России
Россия

 доцент, кандидат медицинских наук, старший научный сотрудник научно-исследовательского отдела организации научных исследований

Scopus Author ID: 57211354401

630091, г. Новосибирск, ул. Фрунзе, 17, Россия 



А. Ф. Гусев
ФГБУ «Новосибирский научноисследовательский институт травматологии и ортопедии им. Я.Л. Цивьяна» Минздрава России
Россия

 кандидат медицинских наук, ученый секретарь

Scopus Author ID: 57204198723

630091, г. Новосибирск, ул. Фрунзе, 17, Россия 



А. М. Зайдман
ФГБУ «Новосибирский научноисследовательский институт травматологии и ортопедии им. Я.Л. Цивьяна» Минздрава России
Россия

 профессор, доктор медицинских наук, Заслуженный деятель науки, главный научный сотрудник научно-исследовательского отдела организации научных исследований

 Scopus Author ID: 6602162681, Web of Science ResearcherID: AAE-6100–2019

630091, г. Новосибирск, ул. Фрунзе, 17, Россия 



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Для цитирования:


Строкова Е.Л., Пахомова Н.Ю., Гусев А.Ф., Зайдман А.М. Идиопатический сколиоз: общая характеристика и анализ этиологических теорий (обзор литературы). Acta Biomedica Scientifica. 2021;6(3):193-208. https://doi.org/10.29413/ABS.2021-6.3.20

For citation:


Strokova E.L., Pahomova N.Yu., Gusev A.F., Zaydman A.M. Idiopathic scoliosis: general characteristics and analysis of etiological theories (literature review). Acta Biomedica Scientifica. 2021;6(3):193-208. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.29413/ABS.2021-6.3.20

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